What is Menopause


Symptoms of Menopause

Menopause is the time in life when your monthly period stops. In other words, it is the permanently end of your menstrual cycles. It is diagnosed, when you have not had a period for one year. Menopause happens because the function of your ovaries stops. As a result, no hormones (estrogen and progesterone) are produced by your ovaries, which control your period and the release of eggs.

Menopause is a natural biological process. It usually begins between the ages of 40 and 55, but can develop before or after this age range. There is no reliable lab test to predict when a woman will experience menopause.

Furthermore, menopause is not a health problem. However, hormonal changes and other factors can cause uncomfortable symptoms, such as hot flashes and weight gain.

Stages of Menopause

Did you know that, natural menopause is not just one phase, it is actually divided into three stages:

  • perimenopause
  • menopause
  • postmenopause

Stage 1- Perimenopause : This phase usually begins several years before menopause, when your ovaries slowly make less estrogen. In the last 1 to 2 years of this stage, the estrogen levels fall faster. Moreover, perimenopause can start up to 10 years before you enter menopause. It often begins in your 40s, but some women enter perimenopause in their 30s.

During perimenopause, your period may become more unpredictable. It may even stop for several months and resume. It’s important to note that you can become pregnant during perimenopause by taking medicines directed by your doctor.

Stage 2- Menopause: The definition of menopause is not having your period for 12 months. At this stage, your ovaries have stopped releasing eggs and reproductive hormones (estrogen and progesterone). Menopause is diagnosed when a woman has gone without a menstrual period for 12 consecutive months.

Stage 3- Postmenopause refers to the years after menopause has occurred. In other words,  postmenopause refers to women who have already reached menopause.

As you enter postmenopause, it’s a good time to reevaluate your health situation and talk to your doctor about long-term health goals. Because, your lower level of estrogen due to postmenopause, puts you at increased risk of heart disease, osteoporosis and other conditions of the heart and bones.

Causes of Menopause

A woman is born with all of her eggs, which are stored in her ovaries. Her ovaries also make the reproductive hormones estrogen and progesterone, which control her period (menstruation) and the release of eggs (ovulation). Menopause happens when the ovaries no longer release an egg every month and menstruation stops.

Age is the most common factor that cause menopause. As you approach your late 30s, your ovaries starts loosing their ability to produce hormones (estrogen and progesterone). Hence, your fertility declines.

In your 40s, your monthly periods may become longer or shorter, heavier or lighter, and less frequent. By the age of 52, the function of your ovaries stops. As a result, no hormones are produced and no egg is released by your ovaries, and you have no more periods.

However, some women can go through menopause in early age. It can be the result of surgery, like if their ovaries are removed in a hysterectomy, or damage to their ovaries from chemotherapy for cancer.

What are the symptoms of Menopause?

Menopause is the time in a woman’s life at which she can no longer reproduce. Symptoms of menopause vary from woman to woman. However,common symptoms of menopause include:

  • Sleep Disturbances: You may have insomnia— trouble falling asleep or staying asleep.
  • Vaginal changes: The lining of your vagina may become thinner, drier, or less stretchy. This can cause dryness or discomfort during sex.
  • Weaker bones: Your bones will probably weaken during menopause. If it’s really bad, it can lead to osteoporosis after menopause.
  • Mood changes: Hormone changes can make you feel anxious, irritable, and tired. Your sex drive might change, too.
  • Night sweats: Hot flashes that wake you up in the middle of the night.
  • Hot Flashes: A hot flash is a sudden, sometimes intense feeling of heat that rushes to your face and upper body.
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs): You may have to pee more often or get more frequent urinary tract or bladder infections.
  • Weight gain: Hormonal changes that occur during menopause often contribute to weight gain. Many studies have confirmed that women in menopause are likely to gain weight and have larger midsections than women who have not gone through menopause.
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Memory problems
  • Reduced sex drive
  • Dry skin, mouth, and eyes
  • Sore or tender breasts
  • Headaches
  • Racing heart
  • Reduced muscle mass
  • Hair thinning or loss
  • Increased hair growth on other areas of the body, such as the face, neck, chest, and upper back

Please note, women affected with symptoms of racing heart, urinary changes, headaches, or other new medical problems should see a doctor to make sure there is no other cause for these symptoms

How is Menopause diagnosed?

A blood test known as PicoAMH Elisa diagnostic was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This test is used to determine whether a woman has entered menopause or is getting close to entering menopause. The test measures the amount of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the blood.

AMH is a hormone produced by a woman’s ovaries that has a role in egg release (ovulation). AMH levels fall as menopause approaches and is one of several indicators.

Furthermore, this test may be helpful to women who show symptoms of perimenopause, which can also have bad health impacts. Early menopause (before the age 45) is associated with a higher risk of osteoporosisheart disease, vaginal changes and loss of libido, and mood changes.

Kindly note, your doctor can also order another blood test that will measure the level of certain hormones in the blood, usually follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. However, this test can be misleading during the beginning of menopause, because, your hormone levels are fluctuating up and down daily. 

Therefore, most doctors will diagnose menopause based on your symptoms, medical history, and menstrual information.

Menopause Treatments

Many women do not need treatment for their menopause symptoms. You may find that your symptoms go away by themselves. However, you may need treatment if your symptoms are severe or affecting your quality of life. Treatments may include:

  • Hormone therapy (HT): This therapy helps to control your symptoms of menopause (such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness). In Hormone therapy, the balance of your body’s hormone levels is maintained by providing supplemental hormones (estrogen and progesterone).

    However, using HT may increase the risk of developing certain diseases and health conditions. A person should not use hormone therapy if they have risk factors for the following health problems, or if they have a personal or family history of these issues:
    • heart disease
    • blood clots
    • gallbladder disease
    • liver disease
    • stroke
    • breast cancer

Furthermore, hormone therapy is available in various forms, including, oral (pill), skin patch and spray. But, it is important to discuss the benefits and risks of hormone therapy with your doctor before using it.

  • Vaginal estrogen: To relieve vaginal dryness, estrogen can be applied directly to the vagina using a vaginal cream or tablet. This treatment releases just a small amount of estrogen, which is absorbed by the vaginal tissues. It can help relieve vaginal dryness.
  • Low dose of antidepressants:  A low dose of certain antidepressants may be useful for management of hot flashes in menopause.
  • Medications for osteoporosis: Depending on individual needs, doctors may recommend medication to prevent or treat osteoporosis (a bone disease).
    Several medications are available that help to reduce bone loss and risk of fractures. Your doctor may prescribe vitamin D supplements to help strengthen bones.
  • Low dose of birth control pills: Oral contraceptive pills are another form of hormone therapy often prescribed for women in perimenopause, to treat irregular vaginal bleeding, relieve hot flashes, vaginal dryness and mood changes.

    Oral contraceptive are not recommended for women who have already reached menopause.

Kindly note, before deciding any form of treatment, talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits involved with each option of treatment. Review your options yearly, as your needs and treatment options may change.

Natural treatments for Menopause symptoms:

  • Soy: Soy has isoflavones, which are phytoestrogens (plant estrogens). Some studies have observed that soy may be effective in reducing menopausal symptoms. However, other studies have found no benefit. Only food forms of soy, like tofu and soy milk, are recommended. Soy in tablet or powder form is not advised.

    Moreover, many experts recommend that women who have a history of breast cancer avoid phytoestrogens.
  • Vitamin E: Topical vitamin E oil applied to the vagina helps to improve lubrication and may also reduce hot flashes.
  • Calcium and Vitamin D: Take calcium and vitamin D supplements to help reduce your risk for osteoporosis (a bone disease). Talk to your doctor about supplements that can help you for your individual health needs.
  • Flaxseed: Flaxseed has omega-3 fatty acids and lignans, which act as phytoestrogens. Results from studies have been mixed, but it may help to reduce menopause symptoms in some women.

    Avoid whole flaxseed because it is difficult to digest.
  • Exercises: It is important to exercise for 20 to 30 minutes a day.

Exercise can help:

    • increase energy
    • promote a better night’s sleep
    • improve mood
    • promote your general well-being

Lifestyle tips for Menopause

Tips for managing the symptoms of menopause include:

  • Practicing relaxation and deep breathing exercises.
  • Having a healthful diet that includes plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Quitting smoking.
  • Limiting the intake of alcohol.
  • Good sleeping habits and getting plenty of rest.
  • It is important to do regular exercise for managing the symptoms of menopause.
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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)


Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder that women can get during their childbearing years (ages 15 to 44).  Women with PCOS  produce an excess amount of male hormone (androgen), that are usually present in women in small amounts.

The extra male hormones disrupt the menstrual cycle of a women, hence, women with PCOS get fewer periods than usual. This hormone imbalance can affect your ability to have a child.

What is PCOS?

PCOS affects a woman’s ovaries and ovulation. Ovulation occurs when a mature egg is released from an ovary. This happens so it can be fertilized by a male sperm.

But in PCOS, many small cysts (fluid-filled sacs) can develop inside the ovaries. These sacs are actually follicles, each one containing an immature egg. The eggs never mature enough to trigger ovulation. Due to lack of ovulation, the androgen (male hormone) levels are higher than normal in women with PCOS.

Furthermore, the excess male hormone levels can cause more problems with a woman’s menstrual cycle and makes it harder for them to get pregnant.

Please note, the word “polycystic” means “many cysts.”

The 3 main features of Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are:

  • Irregular Periods: which means your ovaries do not regularly release eggs (ovulation).
  • Excess male hormone (Androgen): Excess levels of male hormones may result in physical signs, such as excess facial and body hair (hirsutism), and occasionally severe acne.
  • Polycystic ovaries: Your ovaries contain many fluid-filled sacs (follicles) that surround the eggs. As a result, your ovaries might fail to function regularly.

Please note, if you have at least 2 of these features, you may be diagnosed with Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Furthermore, PCOS also cause hair growth on the face and body and it can contribute to long-term health problems like diabetes and heart disease.

Who gets Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?

Most women find out they have Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in their 20s and 30s, when they have problems getting pregnant and see their doctor. But PCOS can happen at any age after puberty.

You may be more likely to have PCOS if you have obesity or if you have a mother or sister with PCOS.

What Causes PCOS?

The exact cause of Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is not clear. Most experts think that several factors play a role include:

  1. Insulin resistance: Insulin is the hormone produced in the pancreas that allows cells to use sugar from foods for energy. But many women with PCOS have insulin resistance, meaning that their body’s cells can’t use insulin properly.

    When cells can’t use insulin properly, the body demand for insulin increases. As a result, your insulin levels become higher than normal. Further, excess insulin might increase androgen (male hormone) production, causing difficulty with ovulation.

    Kindly note, Overweight or Obesity are major causes of insulin resistance in a woman. Over time, both obesity and insulin resistance can increase your risk to type 2 diabetes.

  2. Excess androgens: Women with PCOS have high level of androgens (male hormone) than normal. Higher androgen levels in women can prevent the ovaries from releasing an egg (ovulation) during each menstrual cycle and can cause extra hair growth and acne.

  3. Inflammation: Research has shown that women with PCOS often have an increased levels inflammation in their body, that stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens (male hormone).

  4. Family History: PCOS may also run in families. You might be more likely to have PCOS if your sister or mother also has it.

Symptoms of PCOS

Symptoms of PCOS often develop around the time of the first period. But some women discover they have PCOS, when they have gained a lot of weight or when they have trouble in getting pregnant.

The symptoms of PCOS may include:

  • Irregular periods: The most common PCOS symptoms are missed, irregular, infrequent or very light periods. Some women with PCOS get fewer than eight periods a year.
  • Infertility: Difficulty getting pregnant as a result of irregular ovulation or failure to ovulate.
  • Too much hair: More than 70 percent of women with PCOS grow hair on their face and parts of their body. Excess hair growth is called hirsutism.
  • Acne or oily skin.
  • Weight gain, especially around the belly.
  • Darkening of the skin: Dark or thick patches of skin can form on the back of the neck, in the groin and under the breasts.
  • Male pattern baldness: Thinning hair or hair loss on the scalp.

Effects of PCOS

Women with Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are more likely to develop certain serious health problems. These include:

  • Infertility: To get pregnant, you have to ovulate. Women who don’t ovulate regularly don’t release as many eggs to be fertilized. Therefore, PCOS is one of the leading causes of infertility in women.
  • Pregnancy complications: PCOS can also cause problems during pregnancy for you and for your baby. Women with PCOS have higher chance of miscarriage and premature birth.
  • Metabolic syndrome: It is a group of health issues including high blood pressure, high blood sugar and abnormal cholesterol level. Together, these factors are called metabolic syndrome and they increase your risk of heart disease, diabetes, and stroke.
  • Sleep apnea: Women with PCOS, particularly when they are overweight, can be at an increased risk of developing sleep apnea. In this condition your upper airway is obstructed during sleep. This leads to repeated pauses in breathing during the night, which interrupt sleep.
  • Endometrial cancer: Regular periods help to prevent excess thickening of the lining of the uterus. Not having regular periods can lead to abnormal cells building up inside the womb.

    Women who have had absent or very irregular periods (fewer than 4 periods a year) have a higher risk of developing cancer of the womb lining (endometrial cancer).
  • Gestational diabetes: It is a type of diabetes that happens only during pregnancy. Women with PCOS are at greater risk for developing gestational diabetes. This risk increases if you are overweight.

    Usually gestational diabetes goes away after your baby is born. However, you still remain at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy, so monitoring and prevention are very important.
  • Depression and Anxiety: The symptoms of PCOS like unwanted hair growth can negatively affect your emotions and confidence. Many women with PCOS end up experiencing depression and anxiety.

How is PCOS diagnosed?

There is no single test to diagnose PCOS. Your doctor will start by asking about your medical history and symptoms. You may be diagnosed with PCOS if you have at least two of the following symptoms:

  1. Irregular periods: Including periods that come too often, not often enough, or not at all.
  2. High androgen levels: Higher than normal levels of androgens in blood.
  3. Cysts in the ovaries: Multiple cysts on one or both ovaries.

In addition, your doctor may also ask whether you have symptoms like:

  • Extra hair growth on your face, chin, and body.
  • Acne.
  • Weight gain.

Apart from your symptoms, your doctor might recommend following mentioned different tests:

  • A pelvic exam: Your doctor visually and manually inspects your reproductive organs for signs of extra male hormones (for example, an enlarged clitoris) and check to see if your ovaries are enlarged or swollen.
Pelvic Exam
Pelvic Exam
  • Ultrasound: This test is used to look at the size of the ovaries and see if they have cysts. The test can also look at the thickness of the lining of the uterus.
    For this, a device (transducer) is placed in your vagina. This device uses sound waves and computer screen to examine your ovaries for cysts.
Transvaginal Ultrasound
Transvaginal Ultrasound
  • Blood Tests:  Your blood may be analyzed to measure the levels of Androgens Hormone (Male Hormones). Your doctor may also check your blood glucose levels and cholesterol levels.

How is PCOS treated?

There is no cure for PCOS, but the symptoms can be treated. Treating symptoms of PCOS depends on a number of factors such as your age, how severe your symptoms are, and your overall health. The type of treatment may also depend on whether you want to become pregnant in the future. Therefore, speak to your doctor or health care provider about medications for the treatment.

Furthermore, treatment for PCOS usually starts with lifestyle changes like weight loss, diet plan and exercise.

Healthy eating habits and regular physical activity can help relieve PCOS related symptoms. Losing just 5 to 10 percent of your body weight can help regulate your menstrual cycle and improve your chances of getting pregnant. Moreover, losing weight may also help to improve your cholesterol levels, lower your blood glucose levels and help your hormones reach normal levels.

A few studies have found that 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise at least 4 days a week can help women with PCOS lose weight. Losing weight with exercise also improves ovulation and insulin levels.

Please Note, exercise is even more beneficial when combined with a healthy diet.

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PCOS and Pregnancy

If you have PCOS, you might struggle to get pregnant. Between 70 and 80 percent of women with PCOS have fertility problems.

Moreover, once you become pregnant with PCOS, it can cause problems during pregnancy for you and for your baby. Babies born to mothers with PCOS have a higher chance of being admitted to a newborn intensive care unit or dying before, during, or right after birth. 

Pregnancy complications related to PCOS include:

  • Miscarriage: Pregnant women with PCOS may have a higher risk of miscarriage in the early months of pregnancy as compared to women without PCOS.
  • Gestational diabetes (Diabetes during pregnancy): This is a type of diabetes that starts during pregnancy. If you have gestational diabetes, your body can’t use sugar (glucose) properly. This leads to higher-than-normal levels of sugar in your blood, which can be unhealthy for you and the fetus. In most cases, the condition goes away after the baby is born. 

    Furthermore, if you have gestational diabetes, you are also at increased risk of having a baby larger than expected for their gestational age. Gestational age is length of time that a baby grows and develops inside the mother’s uterus. Therefore, having a large baby can lead to cesarean delivery.

    In addition, women with gestational diabetes as well as their children are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future.
  • Preeclampsia: Preeclampsia is a dangerous rise in blood pressure during pregnancy. Pregnant women with preeclampsia often have high blood pressure, high levels of protein in their urine and swelling in their legs, feet and hands. Preeclampsia generally happens after 20 weeks of pregnancy. However, in some cases, it occurs earlier or after delivery.

    If you develop preeclampsia during your pregnancy, you will have to be monitored extremely closely by doctor because your high blood pressure prevents the fetus from getting enough oxygen and nutrients due to reduced blood flow. Moreover, preeclampsia can harm the mother’s kidneys, liver and brain. If left untreated, preeclampsia can lead to eclampsia, a serious condition that can have health risks for both the mother and baby. Eclampsia can cause organ damage, seizures, and even death.

    Currently, the only cure for preeclampsia is to deliver the baby, even preterm if necessary. The timing of delivery depends on how severe the preeclampsia is and how many weeks pregnant you are.
  • Preterm birth: Infants are considered preterm if they are delivered before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Research has shown that people with PCOS are at a higher risk of having a premature birth. The most common reason for preterm birth is preeclampsia. Furthermore, preterm infants may suffer from many health problems, both right after birth and later in life, 
  • Cesarean Delivery: The risk of pregnancy complications are high in women with PCOS, which often leads to cesarean delivery. As cesarean delivery is a surgical procedure, recovery can take longer than recovery from vaginal birth. Moreover, birth through Cesarean delivery has its own risks for both the mother and baby.

Please note, if you have PCOS and are pregnant, it is important you talk with your doctor. The risk of these complications can be reduced by monitoring your PCOS symptoms and taking extra care during your pregnancy.

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What is an Endocrinologist

What is an Endocrinologist

An endocrinologist is a specially trained doctors who is qualified to diagnose diseases that affect the hormone making glands.

The conditions that are treated by an endocrinologist are as following:

  • Thyroid diseases
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Menopause
  • Over or under production of hormones
  • Lack of growth
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Lipid disorders
  • Cancers of the endocrine glands
  • Osteoporosis

The common diseases and disorders that endocrinologists deal with include diabetes and thyroid disorders.

An Endocrinologist is a True Specialist

An endocrinologist is a specialist who has thoroughly studied hormonal conditions and knows the best possible treatments, even when conventional treatments do not work well. Unlike a family doctor or general practitioner, an endocrinologist studies hormones and hormonal diseases in depth. Hence, this specialist will be able to provide the best possible treatment. 

What to expect at your first appointment with an endocrinologist

Your endocrinologist is likely to ask you a number of questions. So being prepared before you see him will be of great help to you, as this may save time to go over any particularly important points you feel the need to spend more time on.

He will ask in detail about the symptoms you are experiencing, specifically related to the deficiency or excess of a hormone you may have.

Your doctor may ask:

  • What are your symptoms, and when did you first notice them?
  • How have your symptoms changed over time?
  • Has your appearance changed, including your weight or the amount of your body hair?
  • Have any of your family members been diagnosed with thyroid disease, hormonal or autoimmune conditions?
  • Are you currently being treated or have you recently been treated for any other medical conditions?
  • Have you recently had a baby?
  • Have you lost interest in sex? If you’re a woman, has your menstrual cycle changed?
  • Have you had any recent head injuries or have you had neurosurgery?

Further, your examination will depend on the type of problem you have. Your endocrinologist will look for signs of a disease as well as complications of the disease and treatments.

An Endocrinologist Works with Your Primary Care Doctor

Visiting an endocrinologist does not mean you will never see your primary care doctor again. Going to an endocrinologist when struggling with a hormonal condition gives you another set of eyes to ensure your health is as good as it can be.

Remember, your goal when facing a hormonal disease diagnosis should be to take care of your disease as best as possible. This is often done with the support of an endocrinologist. 

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Enlarged Thyroid (Goiter)

A Goiter is an abnormal enlargement of thyroid gland which is a butterfly-shaped organ located at the base of your neck. It indicates a condition, in which, thyroid grows abnormally. Goiter commonly develops as a result of iodine deficiency or due to thyroid problem.

In other words, if your thyroid gland is producing too much hormones ie. (hyperthyroidism) or too little (hypothyroidism), you can develop a goiter. Women are more likely to develop a goiter than men.

Further, it is important to know that, having a goiter doesn’t always mean that your thyroid gland is malfunctioning. However, an enlarged thyroid gland can produce a normal amount of hormones. Goiters are generally pain less but some times you may feel difficulty in swallowing food and breathing.


Very primary symptom of goiter is a noticeable swelling in front of the neck. Not all the goiter cause symptoms but in some cases people experience symptoms given below:

  • Tightness in throat
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Lump in neck
  • Coughing
  • Voice hoarseness
  • In severe cases, difficulty breathing

What causes goiter?

There are different conditions that causes Goiter.

Iodine Deficiency: The primary activity of the thyroid gland is to concentrate iodine from the blood to make thyroid hormone. The gland cannot make enough thyroid hormone if it does not have enough iodine.

Therefore, due to iodine deficiency the individual will become hypothyroid. Consequently, the pituitary gland in the brain senses the thyroid hormone level is too low and sends a signal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) to the thyroid. This hormone (TSH) stimulates the thyroid to produce more thyroid hormone and to grow in size. Hence, this abnormal growth in size of thyroid is termed a “goiter.”

Hashimoto’s disease : The main cause of goiter in developed countries is autoimmune disease. Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disorder. It damages your thyroid, causing low production of hormones ie. (Hypothyroidism).

As a result, sensing a low hormone level, your pituitary gland produces more Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) . This hormone stimulates the thyroid to produce more thyroid hormone and to grow in size. This abnormal growth in size of thyroid is termed a “goiter.”

Hormonal Changes: Women leading to menopause can develop a goiter as there are so many hormonal changes occurs at that time. Women above age of 40 have more chances to develop it. Pregnancy also makes so many hormonal changes in women, so this can also lead to develop a goiter.

Family History: Hereditary factors may cause goiter. If one of the parent is suffering from it, then you may have chances to develop it as well.

How is goiter diagnosed?

  • Physical Examination: Your doctor may be able to tell if the thyroid gland has grown by feeling the neck area for nodules and signs of tenderness.
  • Ultrasound of the thyroid: It is a procedure which sends high frequency sound waves through thyroid to find out the gland’s size and nodules. It can be used to visualize the thyroid gland.
  • Hormone test: A blood test which measures the hormone levels of the body to check the proper working of thyroid.
  • CT scan: CT scan or MRI is used to measure the size of goiter.
  • Biopsy: In this procedure a small specimen is taken from thyroid tissue with a needle and send it to laboratory for further examination.


Your doctor will decide on a course of treatment based on the size and condition of your goiter, and symptoms associated with it.

  • Medications: If you have hypothyroidism, then thyroid hormone replacement with levothyroxine will resolve the symptoms of it. This also slow down the release of thyroid stimulating hormone from your pituitary gland, often decreasing the size of the goiter.
  • Radioactive iodine treatment: This treatment is used in cases of an overactive thyroid gland. It involves taking radioactive iodine orally. Furthermore, iodine goes to thyroid gland through your bloodstream and kills thyroid cells. The treatment results in a diminished size of the goiter. However, After this treatment, the patient usually has to take thyroid hormone replacement therapy for the rest of his or her life.
  • Surgery: It is performed to remove all or part of your thyroid gland. It may also be needed if the goiter is large and causes problems with breathing and swallowing. Surgery is also sometimes used to remove nodules. It must be done if cancer is present. You may also need to take levothyroxine after surgery, depending on the amount of thyroid removed.

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Diet and Yoga

Diet: If your goiter is caused by your diet then you may need to increase or decrease your iodine intake at home.

Kindly discuss your diet plan with your doctor. He/She will tell you how much iodine is required per day for keeping your thyroid healthy.

Yoga: Yoga brings many benefits to your overall health. It can help treat your thyroid gland naturally. Several studies have shown the positive effect of yoga for improving thyroid function.

However, it is important to know that Yoga can not cure but can help maintain and improve your thyroid function. Kindly note, Yoga is a complementary therapy and should not be used as a replacement for your existing medical treatment. Therefore, before you start practicing yoga for thyroid problems, make sure to consult with your doctor. 

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