T3 and T4

Hyperthyroidism

Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormones. It refers to a state in which a person’s thyroid hormones production is above normal level. It is also called overactive thyroid. Hyperthyroidism can accelerate the metabolism rate of your body. As a result, it can cause weight loss and irregular heart activity. It is more common in women than men. Blood tests are the only way to reliably confirm a diagnosis.

Furthermore, having too much of thyroid hormones can cause unpleasant and potentially serious problems that may need treatment. Signs and symptoms of it varies from person to person. But some symptoms of it can be easily confused with other disease.

Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism

  • Bulging Eyes
  • Abnormal Heart Rate
  • Diarrhea
  • Weight Loss
  • Irritability
  • Itching
  • Heat Intolerance
  • Stress
  • Sleeplessness
  • Vision Problem
  • Frequent Sweating
  • Irregular Mensuration
  • Nervousness

If you suspect your symptoms are the result of a thyroid problem, it’s most important you talk with your doctor. They can order a blood test to measure the amount of thyroid hormones in your blood. Because high levels of Thyroxine (T4) and low amounts of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) in blood indicates an overactive thyroid.

Treatment of Hyperthyroidism

Antithyroid medications (sometimes written as anti-thyroid medications) suggested by your doctor is a common treatment for hyperthyroidism. Hence, the goal of antithyroid medications is to prevent the thyroid from producing excess amounts of T3 and T4 hormones.

Diet In Hyperthyroidism

If we talk about diet plan, then there are certainly many do’s and dont’s. Although a healthy diet can’t cure or prevent hyperthyroidism. However, eating healthy foods may help ease hyperthyroidism symptoms.

What to Eat
  • Lentils
  • Mushrooms
  • Spinach
  • Potato
  • Honey
  • Red Meat
  • Cauliflower, Broccoli
  • Strawberry, Blueberry, Raspberry
  • Unsalted Nuts
What to avoid
  • Dairy Products
  • Soy Products
  • Salted Nuts and Seeds
  • Caffeine

Also, healthy eating, exercising and stress management plan can help ease hyperthyroid symptoms. Medication plays an important role in treating hyperthyroidism, but it is also important to do exercise on daily basis. So you can start with some simple exercises like walking, aerobics, pushups and yoga.

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Hypothyroidism

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. It refers to a state in which a person’s thyroid hormones production is bellow normal. It is also called under active thyroid or low thyroid, which can slow down the metabolism rate of your body and can decrease the cardiac activity. Hypothyroidism affects women more frequently than men.

Furthermore, blood tests are the only way to reliably confirm a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Signs and symptoms of Hypothyroidism varies from person to person. But some symptoms can be easily confused with other disease.

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism

  • Hair Loss
  • Puffy Face
  • Dry Skin
  • Slow Heartbeat
  • Constipation
  • Irregular Periods in women
  • Loss of interest in sex
  • Cold Sensitivity
  • Tiredness
  • Sore Muscles
  • Joint Pain
  • Depression
  • Weight Gain

If you suspect your symptoms are the result of a thyroid problem, then it’s important you talk with your doctor. They can order a blood test, because If you have low level of Thyroxine (T4) and abnormally high level of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone), you may have Hypothyroidism.

Treatment of Hypothyroidism

It involves daily intake of medicines suggested by your doctor and little change in your diet. It will definitely help return your body’s functions to normal. For example, I am on medicine ie Thyronorm 75mcg (Levothyroxine Sodium) suggested by my doctor. It is also important to check the thyroid levels on quarterly basis for proper monitoring of thyroid levels in your body.

Diet In Hypothyroidism

If we talk about diet plan, then there are certainly many do’s and dont’s.

What to Eat
  • Eggs
  • Meat
  • Fish
  • Fruits and Vegetables
  • Gluten Free Grains & Seeds
  • Dairy Products
  • Non caffeinated Beverages
  • Brazil Nuts
  • Selenium rich food
What to avoid
  • Soy Foods
  • Cabbage, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Spinach
  • Fruits & Starchy Plants ie. Sweet Potatoes, Peaches, Strawberries
  • Pine nuts
  • Peanuts

Also, a regular exercise plays an important role in your hypothyroidism management plan. The good news is that, you don’t have to run a marathon to reap the benefits of exercise. In other words, you can start with swimming, walking and some yoga.

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Thyroid Gland

Thyroid Gland Image
Location of Thyroid Gland

Thyroid is a small gland (about 2 inches long) which has the shape like a butterfly that lies in the front of your neck. It has two sides called lobes, located either side of your windpipe. Further, these two lobes of the gland are connected by a small tissue called the isthmus.

Thyroid is a vital hormone gland which plays a major role in metabolism, growth, development, temperature, weight and heart rate of the human body by constantly releasing a steady amount of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) into the bloodstream. Also, during infancy and childhood, adequate thyroid hormone is crucial for brain development.

How the Thyroid Gland Works

Thyroid gland produces two type of hormones T3 and T4 by absorbing iodine from the food you eat. These hormones controls the body’s metabolism and are necessary for all the cells in your body to work normally. In other words, thyroid hormones regulates the speed with which your body cells work.

If too much of the hormones are released by the thyroid gland, then your body cells work faster than normal, and you have hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, if too little of the thyroid hormones are produced, then cells and organs of your body slow down, and you have hypothyroidism. Therefore, it is important that T3 and T4 levels are neither too high nor too low in your body. 

The two thyroid hormones are:

  • T3 – Triiodothyronine: This hormone contains three atoms of iodine and is often called T3.
  • T4 – Thyroxine: This hormone contains four atoms of iodine and is often called T4.

How Thyroid Gland produce hormones as needed?

To produce the right amount of hormones, the thyroid gland needs the help of pituitary gland. The pituitary gland produces a hormone called thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) which tells the thyroid gland how much hormones (T3 and T4) to produce.

Moreover, the pituitary gland monitors and controls the amount of thyroid hormones in your bloodstream:

  • When T3 and T4 levels are low in your body then pituitary gland makes more TSH to tell the thyroid to produce more thyroid hormones.
  • When T3 and T4 levels are high pituitary gland makes less TSH.

Please note, TSH levels that are too high or too low can indicate your thyroid is not working properly.

Thyroid disease

  • Hypothyroidism: It is a condition in which thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. It is also called under active thyroid or low thyroid, which can slow down the metabolism rate of your body and can decrease the cardiac activity. (read more)
  • Hyperthyroidism: It is a condition in which thyroid gland produces too much hormones. It is also called overactive thyroid. Hyperthyroidism can accelerate the metabolism rate of your body. As a result, it can cause weight loss and irregular heart activity. (read more)
  • Goiter: A Goiter is an abnormal enlargement of thyroid gland. It indicates a condition, in which thyroid grows abnormally. Goiter commonly develops as a result of iodine deficiency or due to thyroid problem. (read more)
  • Graves’ Disease: It is an autoimmune disorder that cause an over active thyroid gland and results in an over production of thyroid hormones (Hyperthyroidism). In this disease, your immune system creates antibodies known as thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSI). These antibodies then attach to healthy thyroid cells and can cause your thyroid to create too much thyroid hormone. (read more)
  • Hashimoto’s Disease: Hashimoto’s Disease in an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland. This can lead to hypothyroidism, a condition in which thyroid does not make enough hormones for body’s need. (read more)
  • Thyroid Nodules: The term thyroid nodule refers to an abnormal growth of thyroid cells that forms a lump within the thyroid gland. It can be solid or filled with fluid. Most thyroid nodules aren’t serious and don’t cause symptoms. Only a small percentage of thyroid nodules are cancerous. (read more)
  • Thyroid Cancer: It is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. The malignant cells begin multiplying in your thyroid and, once there are enough of them, they form a tumor. If it’s caught early, then thyroid cancer is one of the most treatable forms of cancer. (read more)
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